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What Is the Working Principle of Metal Oxide Varistors (MOVs)?



Metal oxide varistors (MOVs) serve as a vital tool for protecting electronic circuits and devices from damage caused by overvoltage. Though simple in appearance, this device works effectively to protect electronics from voltage surges.


What are metal oxide varistors (MOVs)?


MOV or metal oxide varistor refers to a voltage-dependent resistor with a varied resistance value relying on the applied voltage. Typically, it is a two-terminal device consisting of variable resistance material, metal oxide granules, packaged between two metal oxide electrodes. The primary function of MOVs is to absorb high voltage surges, by reducing the voltage amplitude and protecting the device from further electrical damage. With the increase in power demand, the electronic devices have to withstand higher power cycles during operation; thus, protection against overvoltage has become a sensitive issue.


Working principle of metal oxide varistors (MOVs)


The metal oxide varistor works in a single direction and provides protection against transient voltage pulses. Unlike a fuse or thermal breaker, which ruptures the connection when the circuit's current reaches a certain value, MOVs act as a voltage switch. MOVs play a significant role in suppressing the overvoltage spikes caused by lightning or other voltage surges.


When larger than normal electrical voltage exists across the VARISTOR, the power of the surge is coupled together with the energy-absorbing property of the Varistor. Thus, the MOV experiences a rise in current flowing from one electrode to the other. The direction of the current is directly influenced by the polarity of the voltage applied to the metal oxide varistor. Consequently, the resistance of the MOV drops abruptly with an increase in voltage, reducing the circuit's energy. The MOV, in this way, tends to absorb excessive voltage, ensuring the safety of the electronic device. If you are looking for a reliable zinc oxide varistor manufacturer, TGE is the trustworthy choice with their expertise in producing high-quality MOVs.


Advantages of using metal oxide varistors (MOVs)


The metal oxide varistors movs offer several advantages while providing protection against overvoltage.



In conclusion, the metal oxide varistor (MOVs) has become an indispensable component in every electronic device's protection circuitry. It works by clamping the high voltage transient surges, effectively protecting the electronic device from further electrical destruction. With the increasing demand for higher power cycles during operation, reliable protection against voltage spikes has become essential to prevent electronic equipment from being damaged. The use of metal oxide varistors (MOVs) provides an efficient and cost-effective means of offering protection against overvoltage, ensuring the smooth and safe operation of electronic devices.




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